Stainless Steel Grades

SS301 contains less chromium and nickel than 302 for more work hardening.

SS302 is the basic type of the 300 series, 18% chromium— 8% nickel group. It is the renowned 188
Stainless and is the most widely used of the chromium nickel stainless and heat resisting steels.

303 contains added phosphorus and sulfur for better machining characteristics.Corrosion resistance is slightly less than 302/304.
Type 303Se contains Se and P added to improve machinability.
Type 305 has increased nickel to lower work hardening properties.

Type 309309Shave added chromium and nickel for more corrosion resistance and high temperature scaling resistance. 309S contains less carbon to minimize carbide precipitation.

Type 310310Shave higher nickel content than 309309Sto further increase scaling resistance.310S contains less carbon than 310 to minimize carbide precipitation.

Type 321 contains titanium to tie up the carbon and avoid chromium carbide precipitation in welding.

Type 330 ultra high nickel content provides best corrosion resistance to most furnace atmospheres. This grade has low coefficient of expansion, excellent ductility and high strength.

Type 347 – 348 have columbium tantalum added to tie up the carbon and avoid chromium carbide precipitation in welding. Use for temperatures from 800to 1650 degrees F.
Type 405 contains 12% chromium with aluminum added to prevent hardening.
Type 430 is the basic type in the ferritic group, possessing good ductility and excellent resistance to atmospheric corrosion. Its scaling resistance is higher than 302 in intermittent service, somewhat lower in continuous use.
Type 430F430Sehave sulfur and selenium (respectively) added for increased machinability.
Type 442 has added chromium for improved resistance to scaling.
Type 446 has still higher chromium content (27%) for added scaling resistance and is highest of the standard straight chromium types. Alloys with over 30% chromium become too brittle to process.
Type 410 is the basic Martensitic type. It is the general purpose corrosion and heat resisting chromium stainless steel. It can be hardened by thermal treatment to a wide range of mechanical properties. It can be annealed soft for cold drawing and forming. This grade is always magnetic.
Type 403 is a special high quality steel made for blades and buckets for steam turbine and jetengine compressors. This grade is eminently suited for very highly stressed parts. This material is magnetic in all conditions.
Type 416416Se
are modifications of Type 410, being the free machining, nonseizing, nongalling alloys. These properties are obtained by the addition of sulfur or selenium to Type 410.This is a heat treatable grade with corrosion resistance and other characteristics closely approaching those of Type 410.
Type 420 is a chromium stainless steel capable of heat treatment to a maximum hardness of approximately 500 Brinell. It has a maximum corrosion resistance only in the fully hardened condition. Type 420 is magnetic in all conditions.
Type 431 is a nickel bearing (1.252.00%)chromium stainless steel which may be heat treated to high mechanical properties. It is magnetic in all conditions of use. It has superior corrosion resistance to Types 410, 416, 420, 430 and 440 stainless steels.
Type 440C is the stainless steel that can be heat treated to the highest hardness of any of the



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Price Rs/Kg Material

40 – Mild Steel
80 – SS409
120 – Aluminum, 1 mm2 = 1 Amp
385 – Copper 1 mm2 = 3 Amp

Lab for spectro analysis

1. Metallurgical NDT – Mr. Ketan Parik – Contact No. 9321377886,
2. CEG Test House And Research Centre Pvt. Ltd. Jaipur
Mr. Mukesh Rathi : 9982650232,
3. Spectro Analytical Lab, New Delhi, Ms Girija 9873571512
4. Spectro Research Lab Ventures (P) Ltd, Kanpur M: +91-9235503984/85
5. Spectro Group Of Companies, New Delhi, Mr Kuldeep M: 9873001515

Welding Electrode Nomenclature

E indicates electrode for arc welding.

The first two (or three) digits indicate tensile strength (the
resistance of the material to forces trying to pull it apart) in
thousands of pounds per square inch of the deposited metal.

The third (or fourth) digit indicates the position of the weld. 0
indicates the classification is not used; 1 is for all positions; 2 is
for flat and horizontal positions only; 3 is for flat position only.

The fourth (or fifth) digit indicates the type of electrode
and the type of power supply used; alternating or direct
current, straight or reverse polarity.
The types of coating, welding current, and polarity position
designated by the fourth (or fifth) identifying digit of the electrode
classification are as listed in table 5-4.
6) The number E6010 indicates an arc welding electrode
with a minimum stress relieved tensile strength of 60,000 psi; is used
in all positions; and reverse polarity direct current is required.

P11 temperature limits 530-540, (…

P11 temperature limits 530-540, ( 40 margin to taken for steam temperature as IBR requirement for metal temperature ), so P11 can be used for steam temperature < 495 Deg C

Ashraful Makhluqat

Humans have free will as opposed to Angels. Angels have been programmed to do certain duties in the obedience of Allah. You wouldn’t want to be like an Angel because they are programmed, while we have free will and are more honored than Angels. We are the “Ashraful Makhluqat” (the Greatest of all Creations).